Below is our Snort and Snort Report Installation Guide for the current versions as of this writing – Snort 184.108.40.206 and Snort Report 1.3.4. This guide is also available in PDF form. This document will enable you to set up a full intrusion detection and prevention system (IDS/IPS) using free software.
The purpose of this document is to provide the user with a simple installation guide to get Symmetrix Technologies’ Snort Report up and running with Sourcefire’s Snort intrusion prevention and detection system on Ubuntu Linux. Please note that package numbers change often but were current as of this writing.
A dedicated PC for the Snort IDS/IPS (the faster the better) with two network cards
An additional PC for IDS/IPS administration
A broadband Internet connection
A method to burn ISO files to a blank CD
A working knowledge of Linux including SSH and editing configuration files with vi
A basic knowledge of TCP/IP and network topologies
Use of the Backslash
There are many instances in this document where a command will not fit on one line so the commonly accepted backslash is used to split it into multiple lines. For example, this is one command, not two:
/usr/local/snort/bin/snort -D -u snort -g snort -c /usr/local/snort/etc/snort.conf -i eth1
If you are copying and pasting you can leave the backslashes in place and Linux will understand it.
There are many ways to set up Snort – we’re going with a pretty simple deployment. The end result will be a dedicated IDS machine that actually does the sniffing and a workstation where you perform administration and view the attacks detected by Snort.
The following diagram illustrates the topology.
In the figure above, the network card facing the traffic you want to monitor will have no IP address. This will make it far more difficult for the IDS PC to be compromised from an external source. The network card facing your administrative workstation will have an internal non-routable IP address and access to any open ports will be limited to your administrative workstation.
It’s important to note that in modern switched network environments that each port on a switch only sees a subset of the entire network’s traffic. Ideally you need to set one port on the switch to be “mirrored” or “spanned” and connect the external IDS network card to it. With this method you can see all traffic going through the switch. As networks scale with multiple switches and segments this becomes much more complex and requires multiple Snort IDS machines which is beyond the scope of this document. Consult http://www.snort.org for more information.
Operating System – Acquire Ubuntu Linux
The first order of business is to download Ubuntu Linux. We’re going to use Ubuntu 14.04 LTS (named LTS for Long Term Support because Canonical will supply security updates for the OS for five years – in this case, until April 2019).
Please note that Ubuntu’s download procedure changes occasionally so a direct walkthrough is not practical. Open http://www.ubuntu.com in your browser and go to the download section. You’re looking for the server version of Ubuntu in ISO format and it will be named ubuntu-14.04.2-server-amd64.iso.
Once you’ve downloaded and burned the image to a blank CD or DVD we’re ready to install the OS.
Installation of Operating System
For security’s sake we will need to install the latest Ubuntu updates on the PC during installation. Temporarily connect one of the network cards to your internal network so it will have Internet access. You can leave the other one disconnected.
Boot up the IDS machine with the Ubuntu CD or DVD, select your language and then select Install Ubuntu Server. Select your language again, your country and then your keyboard type.
Once the network hardware detection is complete, the installer will ask you which network card is primary (usually either eth0 or eth1). It should preselect the card to which you have the cable connected. If the connection doesn’t work later in the installation you can switch the network cable to the other card. It’s highly advisable to label the cards on the back of the machine once you determine their identities.
The installer will now try to automatically configure the network card with DHCP. If you don’t have this running on your internal network you will have to hard code the IP address information. Continuing on, you can name the host whatever you like (I chose “snort”) then select your time zone.
You will then be prompted to set up a user account. This can be anything you want – just pick one and set the password. Choose No when asked to encrypt your home directory (it will contain nothing valuable and we’re going for maximum speed).
The installer will then try to determine your time zone. If it’s correct, agree with the guess of the installer. If it’s incorrect, pick the proper zone.
The disk partitioner will then start. Ideally you would have multiple disks with the mount points spread among them (for high speed logging, etc) but for now just select “Guided – use entire disk.” Accept the next few prompts and then the base system will begin installing.
When you are prompted to select a software updating scheme, choose “No automatic updates.” This machine will not have access to the Internet as it will be configured with no IP address. You can still run manual updates later if you wish by temporarily assigning an address to it.
Now we are going to pick the packages to install. Keeping with best practices we’re going to install the minimum amount of software that we need. For now, just select “OpenSSH server” then pick Continue. We’ll add a few more later.
After SSH is installed you’ll be prompted to install the GRUB boot loader to the master boot record. Select Yes here.
The installation should finish shortly. Select Continue, remove the CD and the machine will boot into a all-text version of Ubuntu. You will then need to log in with the user account you created earlier. By default you cannot log in as root – everything that requires those privileges is done with the sudo command.
Once you’ve logged in, use the “ifconfig” command to determine the temporary IP address of the machine if you used DHCP. You can then SSH to it from a workstation using the account you set up earlier which makes the rest of the process a bit easier (copy and paste, etc). However, the remainder of the instructions will also work directly from the console.
Let’s add a few more packages that you need. Enter these commands at the prompt (you’ll have to enter your password after the first sudo command to provide authorization):
sudo apt-get install nmap sudo apt-get install nbtscan sudo apt-get install apache2 sudo apt-get install php5 sudo apt-get install php5-mysql sudo apt-get install php5-gd sudo apt-get install libpcap0.8-dev sudo apt-get install libpcre3-dev sudo apt-get install g++ sudo apt-get install bison sudo apt-get install flex sudo apt-get install ruby sudo apt-get install make sudo apt-get install autoconf sudo apt-get install libtool
(You’ll be prompted to choose a secure password for the MySQL root user when you install the next package. Don’t forget it.)
sudo apt-get install mysql-server sudo apt-get install libmysqlclient-dev
We now need to edit the php configuration file to allow short tags:
sudo vi /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini
Change this line:
short_open_tag = Off
short_open_tag = On
To ensure the operating system has the latest security patches installed execute the following commands:
sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get upgrade
Reboot the machine:
At this point you should have a working and updated installation of Ubuntu and we’re ready to install Snort and Snort Report.
2. Snort Report
Download and Set up Snort Report
The next step is to download and configure Snort Report. It’s available at http://symmetrixtech.com under the downloads section. As of this writing the current version is 1.3.4. Download snortreport-1.3.4.tar.gz to a directory on your IDS machine.
Open a command prompt in the directory to which you downloaded Snort Report and issue the following commands:
sudo tar zxvf snortreport-1.3.4.tar.gz -C /var/www/html
Now we need to modify the Snort Report configuration file to reflect your MySQL login info. Change the file by editing srconf.php with this command:
sudo vi /var/www/html/snortreport-1.3.4/srconf.php
Change the following line from:
$pass = "YOURPASS";
To this value (use the password you chose in the MySQL setup step earlier rather than YOURPASSWORD):
$pass = "YOURPASSWORD";
Save the file and exit.
Download and Install the Data Acquisition API
Snort 2.9.x introduces the new Data Acquisition API. We’ll need to download and install it before we set up the core Snort package.
The current version is daq-2.0.4.tar.gz and is located here: https://www.snort.org/downloads/snort/daq-2.0.4.tar.gz
Download that package to your Snort machine and install it using the following commands:
wget https://www.snort.org/downloads/snort/daq-2.0.4.tar.gz sudo tar zxvf daq-2.0.4.tar.gz cd daq-2.0.4 sudo ./configure sudo make sudo make install
Download and Install libdnet
There are Ubuntu packages for libdnet but this is an easier method of installation. Download the following file (http://libdnet.googlecode.com/files/libdnet-1.12.tgz) and install it with these commands from your download directory:
wget http://libdnet.googlecode.com/files/libdnet-1.12.tgz sudo tar zxvf libdnet-1.12.tgz cd libdnet-1.12/ sudo ./configure sudo make sudo make install sudo ln -s /usr/local/lib/libdnet.1.0.1 /usr/lib/libdnet.1
Download and Install Snort
While we could install the Snort packages from the Ubuntu 14.04 repositories, that doesn’t guarantee the latest and greatest version of Snort being set up so we’re going to compile and install the source code. As of this writing, it’s version 220.127.116.11 and located here: https://www.snort.org/downloads/snort/snort-18.104.22.168.tar.gz.
The following steps will download and install Snort into /usr/local/snort but you can change this to a directory of your liking by modifying the paths below.
Open a command prompt and issue the following commands:
wget https://www.snort.org/downloads/snort/snort-22.214.171.124.tar.gz tar zxvf snort-126.96.36.199.tar.gz cd snort-188.8.131.52 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/snort --enable-sourcefire sudo make sudo make install sudo mkdir /var/log/snort sudo mkdir /var/snort sudo groupadd snort sudo useradd -g snort snort sudo chown snort:snort /var/log/snort sudo cp etc/gen-msg.map /usr/local/snort/etc
Download the Latest Snort Rules
The next step is to download the latest Snort ruleset. You’ll need to log into the Sourcefire site in a browser in order to get the file. The latest rules are located here: https://www.snort.org/downloads/.
There are two sections on this page – one for subscribers and one for registered users. The only difference is that the registered user rule files are 30 days older than those for subscribers.
Download this file to your IDS machine: snortrules-snapshot-2972.tar.gz.
Open a command prompt in the directory where you downloaded the Snort ruleset file and issue the following commands:
sudo tar zxvf snortrules-snapshot-2972.tar.gz -C /usr/local/snort sudo mkdir /usr/local/snort/lib/snort_dynamicrules
sudo cp /usr/local/snort/so_rules/precompiled/Ubuntu-12-04/x86-64/184.108.40.206/* /usr/local/snort/lib/snort_dynamicrules
sudo touch /usr/local/snort/rules/white_list.rules sudo touch /usr/local/snort/rules/black_list.rules sudo ldconfig
Now we need to edit the snort.conf configuration file:
sudo vi /usr/local/snort/etc/snort.conf
Change these lines from this:
var WHITE_LIST_PATH ../rules var BLACK_LIST_PATH ../rules
var WHITE_LIST_PATH /usr/local/snort/rules var BLACK_LIST_PATH /usr/local/snort/rules
Change these lines from this:
dynamicpreprocessor directory /usr/local/lib/snort_dynamicpreprocessor/ dynamicengine /usr/local/lib/snort_dynamicengine/libsf_engine.so dynamicdetection directory /usr/local/lib/snort_dynamicrules
dynamicpreprocessor directory /usr/local/snort/lib/snort_dynamicpreprocessor/ dynamicengine /usr/local/snort/lib/snort_dynamicengine/libsf_engine.so dynamicdetection directory /usr/local/snort/lib/snort_dynamicrules
Below this line (this is to output the unified2 logs for Barnyard):
#output unified2: filename merged.log, limit 128, nostamp, mpls_event_types, vlan_event_types
Add this line:
output unified2: filename snort.u2, limit 128
Save the file and exit back to the command prompt.
Download and Install Barnyard2
Barnyard2 improves the efficiency of Snort by reducing the load on the main detection engine. It reads Snort’s unified logging output files and enters them into a database. If the database is unavailable Barnyard will input all data when the database comes back online so no alerts will be lost.
The current version of Barnyard2 is 2.13 as of this writing – which you can download and install from GitHub using the following commands:
wget https://github.com/firnsy/barnyard2/archive/v2-1.13.tar.gz sudo mv v2-1.13.tar.gz barnyard2-2-1.13.tar.gz sudo tar zxvf barnyard2-2-1.13.tar.gz cd barnyard2-2-1.13 sudo autoreconf -fvi -I ./m4 sudo ./configure --with-mysql --with-mysql-libraries=/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu sudo make sudo make install sudo cp etc/barnyard2.conf /usr/local/snort/etc sudo mkdir /var/log/barnyard2 sudo chmod 666 /var/log/barnyard2 sudo touch /var/log/snort/barnyard2.waldo sudo chown snort.snort /var/log/snort/barnyard2.waldo
Now let’s create the MySQL database and the database schema. You’ll have to enter the MySQL password that you chose earlier in the next two steps:
echo "create database snort;" | mysql -u root -p mysql -u root -p -D snort < ./schemas/create_mysql
Next we need to create an additional MySQL user for Snort to use as it’s not a good idea to run the daemon as root. Remember the password that you enter below. Also note the single quotes around the password in addition to the double quotes around the entire echo statement:
echo "grant create, insert, select, delete, update on snort.* to snort@localhost identified by 'YOURPASSWORD'" | mysql -u root -p
Modify the Barnyard2 configuration file with the following command:
sudo vi /usr/local/snort/etc/barnyard2.conf
Change the following lines from this:
config reference_file: /etc/snort/reference.config config classification_file: /etc/snort/classification.config config gen_file: /etc/snort/gen-msg.map config sid_file: /etc/snort/sid-msg.map
#config hostname: thor #config interface: eth0
#output database: log, mysql, user=root password=test dbname=db host=localhost
To this (use your MySQL password instead of YOURPASSWORD on the last line below):
config reference_file: /usr/local/snort/etc/reference.config config classification_file: /usr/local/snort/etc/classification.config config gen_file: /usr/local/snort/etc/gen-msg.map config sid_file: /usr/local/snort/etc/sid-msg.map
config hostname: localhost config interface: eth1 output database: log, mysql, user=snort password=YOURPASSWORD dbname=snort host=localhost
Setting up the network cards
Now that we have all the necessary software installed and ready to go, we can configure the network cables, IP addresses, Snort and Snort Report. The examples below will reflect the information in Figure 1 at the top of this document so you will likely have to tune the IP addresses, subnet masks etc in order to reflect your network.
To set the IP address on the first card modify the network configuration file with this command:
sudo vi /etc/network/interfaces
Change the following lines from this:
auto eth0 iface eth0 inet dhcp
to these values:
auto eth0 iface eth0 inet static address 192.168.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 network 192.168.1.0 broadcast 192.168.1.255 gateway 192.168.1.1
Now add the following lines at the end of the file to start the second card without an IP address:
auto eth1 iface eth1 inet manual ifconfig eth1 up
Save and exit the file then reboot:
Now you can connect the network cables as illustrated in Figure 1. Eth0 is connected to the same subnet as your monitoring workstation and eth1 is connected to the segment that you want to monitor. You can verify this by using the “ifconfig” command. Your output should look something like this (abbreviated here):
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:00:00:00:00:00 inet addr:192.168.1.1 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
eth1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 11:11:11:11:11:11 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
Notice how eth1 does not have an IP address but the interface has a status of “up.” Note: there is a chance that eth1 will not come up automatically until you complete the rc.local step listed below.
You can test to see if Snort will run by using this command:
sudo /usr/local/snort/bin/snort -u snort -g snort -c /usr/local/snort/etc/snort.conf -i eth1
You should see a message saying “Commencing packet processing.” You can cancel out of it by hitting Control-C. If it fails to initialize please see the forums at snort.org to determine the problem. It will usually be something in the configuration file.
To set Snort to start automatically on your machine edit the rc.local file with the following command:
sudo vi /etc/rc.local
Then paste the following content in the file (before the “exit 0” line):
/usr/local/snort/bin/snort -D -u snort -g snort -c /usr/local/snort/etc/snort.conf -i eth1
/usr/local/bin/barnyard2 -c /usr/local/snort/etc/barnyard2.conf -d /var/log/snort -f snort.u2 -w /var/log/snort/barnyard2.waldo -D
Save the file and exit. Then either reboot or use the following command to start Snort:
sudo /etc/init.d/rc.local start
Watching Snort with Snort Report
From your administrative workstation you should now be able to pull up the Snort Report main page by browsing to: http://192.168.1.1/snortreport-1.3.4/alerts.php. If you used different IP addresses for the Snort and admin workstation you’ll need to change the ‘192.168.1.1’ part of the URL to reflect your network.
Note: We have seen cases where you will need to clear your browser’s cache in order to see PHP files properly rather than downloading them.
It’s highly recommended for you to research the following topics as you become more familiar with Snort.
This is a free tool that you can use to automatically download the latest Snort rules. For more information, please visit http://code.google.com/p/pulledpork/
BASE and Other Tools
There are other popular traffic analysis tools available for Snort such as BASE and Snorby. These are documented exhaustively at http://www.snort.org.
Just a Beginning
As a reminder, this is a very basic document to get you up and going with Snort and Snort Report. It is extremely critical that you learn all the options in the Snort configuration files in order to set up an effective IDS/IPS. In particular, familiarize yourself with preprocessors and performance tuning along with the tools listed above.
There have been significant changes since Snort 2.8.x so you really need to do some additional research.
Comments, feedback and contributions are welcome and encouraged at email@example.com.
Visit us on the web at http://symmetrixtech.com for the latest news on Snort Report and to download the newest version.
We also highly recommend signing up for the snort-users mailing list available at http://www.snort.org and following us on Twitter for new guides and updates to Snort Report here: http://twitter.com/symmetrixtech.